1. Jill D. Zahniser and Amelia R. Fry, Alice Paul: Claiming Power (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 11.
  2. Katherine J. Adams and Michael L. Keene, Alice Paul and the American Suffrage Campaign (Urbana, Illinois, and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008), 5.
  3. Helen Paul to Tacie Paul, 16 March 1909, in Helen Paul: correspondence, from family to Helen, 1903–1947, Alice Paul Papers (APP), Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, MC399, folder 161.  https://iiif.lib.harvard.edu/manifests/view/drs:428015035$92i
  4. Alice Paul Institute (API), Helen Paul records.
  5. API, Helen Paul records.
  6. The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston, member records.
  7. See Adams and Keene, Alice Paul and the American Suffrage Campaign, 3.
  8. “Conversations with Alice Paul: Woman Suffrage and the Equal Rights Amendment: an interview conducted by Amelia R. Fry” (Berkeley, California: Bancroft Library, Regional Oral History Office, University of California, Berkeley, 1976), 10. http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt6f59n89c&doc.view=entire_text/ accessed 5.19.2021.
  9. Biographical Note, “Alice Paul,” APP. https://schlesinger.radcliffe.harvard.edu/onlinecollections/paul/learnmore/ accessed 5.21.2021.
  10. Jill D. Zahniser, Biographical Sketch of Helen Paul. Included in Part I: Militant Women Suffragists—National Woman’s Party, Database assembled and co-edited by Thomas Dublin and Kathryn Sklar (Alexandria, Virginia: Alexander Street Press, 2015). https://documents.alexanderstreet.com/d/1009054755/ accessed 5.24.2021.
  11. The “New Birth” is an essay by Mary Baker Eddy, first published in The Christian Science Journal in October 1883. It may also be found in Eddy’s Miscellaneous Writings 1883–1896 (Boston: The Christian Science Board of Directors), 15–20.
  12. Helen Paul, testimony, Christian Science Sentinel, 25 October 1919, 157.
  13. “Hunger Striker Is Forcibly Fed,” The New York Times, 9 November 1917, 13.
  14. For example, Alice authored the original proposal for the Equal Rights Amendment. She also worked for women’s rights internationally through the League of Nations, which led to her founding of the World Woman’s Party in 1938. After World War II, she continued these efforts through the United Nations.
  15. See Helen Paul: employment: certification, notes, 1916–1920, 1955, APP, MC399, folder 158. https://iiif.lib.harvard.edu/manifests/view/drs:451066313$4i.
  16. Helen Paul entry, Wellesley College, Twentieth Reunion Record, Class of 1911, API, Helen Paul records.
  17. ibid.
  18. Helen Paul: education: transcripts and grades, 1934–1958, APP, Personal and Family, MC 399, folder 155. https://iiif.lib.harvard.edu/manifests/view/drs:428010652$6i
  19. Helen Paul entry, Wellesley College, Twenty-fifth Reunion Record, Class of 1911, API, Helen Paul records.
  20. See correspondence to Helen Paul from Students’ Association, Pupils of Norman E. John, C.S.B., APP, Personal and Family, MC399, folder 168. https://iiif.lib.harvard.edu/manifests/view/drs:428015447$1i
  21. Class instruction  provides students with an opportunity to deepen their understanding and practice of Christian Science healing.
  22. A Handbook for Summer Camps: Annual Survey, 12th ed. (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1935), 370. https://books.google.com/books?id=55svAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA370&lpg=PA370&dq=Camp+Pondwood;+Helen+Paul&source=bl&ots=As-olmsuGQ&sig=ACfU3U3S_kRhtWHtdiPbvqBM8wGbgDGbkg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwidva7_govxAhXnc98KHZjCCmoQ6AEwEHoECBYQAw#v=onepage&q=Camp%20Pondwood%3B%20Helen%20Paul&f=false. In her oral history with Amelia Fry, Alice Paul gives background on the camp: see “Conversations with Alice Paul: Woman Suffrage and the Equal Rights Amendment: an interview conducted by Amelia R. Fry,” 10. https://oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt6f59n89c&doc.view=entire_text/ accessed 5.19.2021.
  23. Leila J. Rupp, “‘Imagine My Surprise’: Women’s Relationships in Historical Perspective,” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies,  Autumn 1980, 65. https://doi.org/10.2307/3346519.
  24. Helen Paul and Ernestine Hale Bellamy, “Equal Rights Amendment Backers See Influential Groups Lending Support,” The Christian Science Monitor, 7 July 1949, 12.
  25. See Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 81st Congress, First Session, Appendix, August 25, 1949–October 19, 1949 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1949), A6231-A6232.  https://books.google.com/books?id=jL7Ae38ncCkC&pg=SL1-PA6231&lpg=SL1-PA6231&dq=ernestine+hale+bellamy&source=bl&ots=n7REyn3lUf&sig=ACfU3U0CjG3cFTL6TVll6szHtU8QbZCX6Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi-4fn2up7xAhURV80KHd4WCP0Q6AEwD3oECBIQAw#v=onepage&q=ernestine%20hale%20bellamy&f=false
  26. Helen Paul, “UN Assembly Moves Toward Establishing Substantial Gains for Women,” The Christian Science Monitor, 15 December 1950, 14.
  27. Alice Paul to Clara Snell Wolfe, 6 January 1951, National Woman’s Party Records, World Woman’s Party Papers, 1938–1958, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress .
  28. Mary Burt Messer to Alice Paul, 21 December 1950, National Woman’s Party Records, World Woman’s Party Papers, 1938-1958, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. .
  29. Helen Paul to Alice Paul, n.d., APP, Personal and Family, Correspondence: Helen to Alice, 1942-1954, MC399, folder 32. https://iiif.lib.harvard.edu/manifests/view/drs:426994353$19i
  30. Ibid. Helen Paul references Mary Baker Eddy, Miscellaneous Writings 1883–1896 (Boston: The Christian Science Board of Directors), 177, where Eddy asks of her followers, “Will you give yourselves wholly and irrevocably to the great work of establishing the truth, the gospel, and the Science which are necessary to the salvation of the world from error, sin, disease, and death?”